Hydraulic Fracturing Mind Map

In South Texas, hydraulic fracturing is the most common stimulation method with most new producing wells being frac’ed prior to initial production. Some producing wells are even given fracture treatment more than once over their lifetime. While this is one of the safer processes in the oilfield, it is not without its own hazards.


  • Frac Pump: Frac pumps deliver the slurry of frac sand and base fluid (usually water) by adding enough energy to increase the pressure and rate. The pressure must be high enough to reach treatment pressure plus any losses and the rate must be high enough to create a long enough fracture half-length downhole. Multiple frac pumps are needed for most frac jobs.
  • Blender: The blender, or mixer, mixes the sand, which is stored dry in the sand chief, into the base fluid before sending the slurry to the frac pumps.
  • Frac Valve: A master valve mounted to provide pressure control in lieu of the xmas tree master valve.
    Wellhead Saver: A pressure control device that nipples up to the tubing hanger in order to bypass treating pressures around the xmas tree.
  • Hydration Unit: Unit that adds trace chemicals, gels, and base fluids upstream of the blender.
  • Swivel Union: Piece of frac iron that allows for bends in the piping.
  • Manifold: Frac manifold or zipper manifold in dual well operations, that collects frac fluids from multiple pumps to the treatment well.


  • Cleanout: Cleanouts, usually done with a coiled tubing unit, remove any leftover proppant from the wellbore.
  • Flowback: Temporary routing into tanks to flow the spent frac fluid into frac tanks rather than the production equipment.
  • Rig up: Installing frac equipment and iron.
  • Pumping: Performing the hydraulic fracture stimulation by pressuring a high flowrate mixture of sand and fluid downhole.
  • Pumped Materials
    • Proppant
      • Sand
      • Synthetic
    • Base Fluid
      • Water
      • Foam
      • Nitrogen
      • Propane
    • Additives
      • Gels
      • X-Linkers
      • Breakers
      • Friction Reducers
      • Solvents
      • Demulsifiers
      • Scale Inhibitor
      • Corrosion Inhibitor
    • Downhole Effects
    • Isolation
    • Permeability
    • Perforation

Map Created Using FreeMind Software

Recommended Training: New Hire Frac School

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